Favorite "hero defense" map: warcraft3

     

1. Introduction

2. For Beginners

3. For Intermediates

4. For Expert TD creators

1. Introduction

What is a tower defense?

TD stands for "tower defense". It is a "genre" of custom game for Warcraft III.The TD genre was pioneered early on with such games as "TD" and "Arkguil"s TD".In a TD, the objective is usually lớn construct buildings lớn prevent units that walk along a set path from reaching an area.TD"s usually consist of multiple "levels" of gradually increasing difficulty.

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Why make a tower defense?

TD maps can be extremely fun khổng lồ play!They are very challenging and are almost lượt thích a complete minigame to Warcraft III.Even Blizzard created their own fun, secret, TD level that accompanies the expansion The Frozen Throne.TD maps usually take a lot longer khổng lồ create than any other type of bản đồ.I mean, any map can be made in a short amount of time, even a TD.But in my experience though, I tover khổng lồ spover the most time developing a TD.They seem to lớn require a lot of attention & they aren"t always easy for people new lớn TD"s to lớn get right in and make one right away.

2. For Beginners

How to lớn make your Tower Defense original

Perhaps the most important thing you need khổng lồ consider when creating a TD maps is how you will differentiate it from all previous TD"s.You still want to capture the essence of a TD in your bản đồ - but you will need khổng lồ bởi much more than simply change the models và terrain of someone else"s TD.Think about what you want your players to lớn be thinking about while they play.There are many things you can vì to lớn offer a chất lượng experience for your audience.

How to lớn make your Tower Defense fun

Another important point is that even if your TD is very original, that doesn"t necessarily mean that people are going to lớn lượt thích it.In general, vày not make the game so difficult that it is nearly impossible lớn win.trò chơi length should be limited from 30 minutes to 1 hour in length.Your map should be virtually free of bugs - ESPECIALLY tooltips on towers, hotkeys for building towers, descriptions for towers and tower builders, etc.Do not make the game so hard that only yourself and a minority of players can "win" - nobody toàn thân likes lớn play games that they thua all the time.Also, nobody wants to lớn have sầu khổng lồ wait around in a TD because one stupid little creep got mixed up & didn"t walk where he was supposed lớn - or one player is taking forever to lớn finish off the creeps.Use "periodic event" & a variable that increases itself, plus if/then/else statements that kiểm tra that variable khổng lồ run your levels.

The bare bones of a Tower Defense

There are many core essentials to making a TD run effectively.You"ll need lớn create the scenario at the start of the game.Players will need a way khổng lồ create towers và choose which race they want to lớn play.Variables & maps functions will need to lớn be initialized.You will also need functions to manage the levels, and set the victory conditions.

Map Layout:

First, you need to create a layout for the creeps and players.Most often, these are paths or lanes that the creeps walk through, & players build towers to lớn defend against them.Be especially careful when creating your layout, being sure that it is symmetrical for each player.

Races:

Many TD"s have sầu different races for players khổng lồ choose from, & each race can build a different techtree of towers.Races should be original & very different from each other.Different styles of towers và abilities separate one race from another.

Towers:

You will need to create towers for each race lớn play.Towers should be 2x2 in size - the size of the human guard tower.Towers start of basic & gradually become better và more expensive sầu.Some towers can be upgraded & have sầu special abilities.Towers also can have sầu different attack types khổng lồ combat different types of armor.

Creeps:

The easiest way to create different creeps is khổng lồ copy units và modify them.Having a basic formula for creep life, armor, and tốc độ is the BEST way lớn create a balanced game.Values start off low và increase as the game progresses.All creeps should have a low pathing value, to lớn prevent jamming.All creeps should have sầu some value for food cost, và a bounty value.Bounty values give the players gold when the creep is killed.

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Most TD"s allow players to choose different races.Lanes should be symmetrical for all players.

How a TD runs and Operates

All of these components need to be put together lớn create a working game.Each TD works somewhat differently, but the basic order of operations is the same.Almost every tower defense begins with choosing units, then progressing through levels of creeps throughout the game.Below is a basic structure of how a TD operates.

Map Init:

Here you will create the scenario at the start of the game.Define variable arrays of creeps that will be used in levels.Define miscellaneous variables lớn keep traông xã of lives, score, và winnings.

Create Units:

Players are going to need a way khổng lồ choose their race and build towers.Typically, races are chosen from a building, that disapears when a unit has been picked.Undead workers are the most popular builders, because they don"t have sầu to lớn stand & wait for a tower khổng lồ finish construction.

Start first level:

A countdown timer that kicks off the first level.This gives players time to lớn choose races và build some first towers.Typically, players can see the timer và know how much time they have sầu until the game begins.

Spawn Creeps:

Every level of a TD, creeps will be created.Creeps are often stored in large unit type arrays so they can be manipulated easily.All creeps in your TD should require some amount of food, lớn keep traông xã of the amount of creeps on the board.

Level Complete:

A màn chơi is finished when the creep players food becomes zero.A trigger usually catches when a players food has dropped below 1, telling the scripts that the màn chơi has been finished.

Losing Lives:

A trigger "catches" creeps that made it to the end of a players lane và subtracts lives from player totals.Sometimes the creeps meet at the center of the map as well.Creeps can also be worth different amounts of lives.

Tally Score:

A trigger keeps score of how many creeps a player has killed.Player kills are often stored in variable arrays as well.Kills are typically shown on a leaderboard or multiboard.

Victory Conditions:

Victory conditions determine when the game is complete.Players can be defeated if they leaked all of their lives, or win by surviving through each màn chơi.

Team Play, Survival, or Team vs Team?

There are essentially three types of TD"s out there.

Team Play:

Team play is where a group of players work together to lớn win the game.Either they all work khổng lồ build towers lớn defkết thúc one location, or your maps allows multiple teams, say teams of 2, khổng lồ play the game (& it is non-competitive).Classic examples: Arkguil"s TD.

Survival:

One type is where there are multiple runways where creeps will be ordered lớn move, và each player has access only lớn attaông chồng those creeps that come down their runway.Classic example: Blixels TD.

Team vs Team

Where two or more players go head to head!Either the first player or team to lớn clear all the levels wins, or the player that survives the longest wins, or the team or player with the most points within a certain time wins - & of course there are many variations.You can allow players lớn build towers that can attaông chồng the enemy teams towers (à la Tower Line Wars) or keep it simple (à la Cube Defense).

3. For Intermediates

Pathing & Lanes

Warcraft is very smart, & creeps will walk almost any distance to lớn get to lớn their destination.If there is a hole in your pathing map, creeps will be able lớn walk around a player instead of going through their towers.

If your pathing is correct, and the player blocked the creeps" path, they will either attaông chồng the player"s towers, or turn around.But if your pathing is not solid, & there is a gap half way across the map, they will head for it.

Inside World editor, you can cliông xã on View - Pathing (ground) và check your pathing bản đồ.The areas that ground units cannot walk will be shown in purple.Unbuildable areas will be shown in blue.

In the first picture, the arrows show the possible paths the creeps will take.If they cannot go straight inkhổng lồ the left lane, they will head right instead.Blocking the right h& side would force them to lớn move sầu forward.

In the second picture, a player could not build on a blue area.This will allow the creeps khổng lồ walk around the towers there.We need lớn put large form size pathing blockers down lớn prevent units from walking on those areas.

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Creeps cannot walk on purple areas. If a path is not blocked, the creeps will find a different way.Large kích thước pathing blockers prsự kiện creeps from walking around buildable areas.

Spawning Units

Whether you"re using a loop or creating multiple units at once, the most efficient way lớn bởi this is to lớn dump creeps inlớn a region.Instead of having the spawn trigger telling the units to move, have "dump" region tell them to lớn move sầu.Creating & ordering units in one giant trigger can bog the game down.

Dumping all the creeps onkhổng lồ the bản đồ at once can really bog the game down too.Some TD"s use loops khổng lồ create units for each player.Others dump smaller handfuls of groups at a time.Also, when creating all the units at once, they tkết thúc to create a giant clump and get stuông xã.Smooth running TDs will control the flow of incoming creeps.

You can keep traông xã of who leaked the creeps by having multiple ending regions, or by setting the unit"s custom value when it lands in the dump region.The trigger will set the custom value, then order the unit lớn move.Note that, these are still both separated from the spawning code.

Remember, if your players can maze the creeps, you MUST make the checkpoints unbuildable ground.If a player unknowingly builds towers all over the kiểm tra point, the creeps are going khổng lồ destroy all the towers in the area.How fair is that?

Create Units 1 Events Time - Every 45.00 seconds of game time Conditions Actions Unit - Create 3 Footman for Player 1 (Red) at (Center of SPAWN1 ) facing 0.00 degrees Unit - Create 2 Rifleman for Player 1 (Red) at (Center of SPAWN1 ) facing 0.00 degreesMove1 Events Unit - A unit enters SPAWN1 Conditions Actions Unit - Order (Entering unit) khổng lồ Move sầu To (Center of SPAWN2 )Move2 Events Unit - A unit enters SPAWN2 Conditions Actions Unit - Order (Entering unit) to Move sầu To (Center of SPAWN3 )Move3 Events Unit - A unit enters SPAWN3 Conditions Actions Unit - Order (Entering unit) khổng lồ Move To (Center of SPAWN3 )

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Creeps walk from checkpoint to lớn checkpoint, until they reach the center.If players can maze, you MUST make checkpoints unbuildable ground.

Creeps keep Attacking?

The pathing computer isn"t always perfect, and creeps vị get mildly jammed up inside a complex maze.We don"t want khổng lồ prevent this, but control it instead.

The first thing is the collision kích thước of the creeps.We have experimented with many sizes, và concluded the form size should be ONE.We only want creeps lớn attachồng if a player blocked them in solid.Your tower defense should detect an attaông xã, then re-issue the movement order.Creeps won"t continue moving on their own.You will probably need multiple triggers if you have sầu multiple way points as well.

Here is an example:

Control Creeps Red Events Unit - A unit owned by Player 1 (Red) Is attacked Conditions (Owner of (Attacking unit)) Equal to Player 11 (Dark Green) ((Attacked unit) is A structure) Equal khổng lồ True Actions Wait 1.00 seconds Unit - Order (Attacking unit) to lớn Move sầu To (Center of Point 4 )Another reason creeps will attack is from being provoked.This includes abilities lượt thích bash, stun, & splash damage.If you really must use these abilities in your TD, you will have khổng lồ develop a workaround.

Towers with Abilities

You may want some of the towers in your map to have sầu special abilities.Here are some examples of abilities that towers can have.

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Critical StrikePoison AttackFrost AttackSlowMultiple ShotSplash Damage (see notes)Bash (see notes)

Using custom abilities is a way to make towers significantly different from one another.If you have multiple themed races, you will need more abilities khổng lồ make each race quality.You can also add abilities like the Freezing Breath ability that Frost Wyrms have to lớn slow & damage groups of enemies.You can also create towers with special abilities, like Shockwave sầu và Farie Fire.

Note that if a unit becomes bashed you will often make the creep attaông xã your tower.A solution is instead lớn create the stun effect on the overhead of a unit manually through a trigger when it is attacked by that tower, and pause the unit for an amount of time.This way, the unit keeps its original orders.Splash damage will also provoke creeps lớn attachồng as well.

You can create towers that use abilities lượt thích Shockwave sầu through triggers.Make the ability"s cooldown slightly less than the tower"s attachồng cooldown.Then have sầu a trigger sự kiện controlling the tower.chú ý that, this trigger should be disabled before a tower of that type is built, lớn prsự kiện useless trigger events.

Example:

A unit owned by player 5 (creeps) is attackedAttacking unit is (lightning tower)Order (attacking unit) khổng lồ cast (chain lightning) on (attacked unit)

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Different projectiles and abilities make towers original.

Leaderboards

A leaderboard is useful for displaying the title of your bản đồ, how many lives players have sầu left, và what màn chơi the game is on.

Typically, a leaderboard is created about five sầu seconds after the map"s initialization.You cannot create a leaderboard right when the maps starts.You can divide players into lớn team lives, or individually for a survival TD.If you wish to lớn have more than just player lives, you will need to create a multiboard instead.

Please also see the "Leaderboards" tutorial for more information on this topic.

Unit varieties

One of the easiest ways to pichồng which units you would like khổng lồ use is to lớn create them inside world editor.Slamming down 50-100 units and comparing them can give sầu you a good idea of what your line up is going to be.Then shift the units around inlớn groups or rows in which you would like them lớn appear.This triông chồng is also really handy for creating your towers as well.

Each level of creeps will need their own unique hit points, defense types, và abilities.Not every level has khổng lồ have sầu special abilities, but it can spice things up a bit.

As each cấp độ progresses, creeps should be getting harder & harder.Here are few suggested ways of making creeps unique:

High defense

Adding extra defense khổng lồ a set of creeps. levels 01-10: 3 def levels 11-20: 5 def levels 21-30: 7 def levels 31-40: 9 def levels 41-50: 12 def levels 51-60: 15 def levels 61-70: 18 def levels 71-80: đôi mươi defBossesBosses should also have sầu higher defense than normal creeps, and have sầu much more life.

Flying

Give"em flying & create towers that attachồng both ground và air, or towers that vì chưng way better against air only.

Ethereal

Change their pathing khổng lồ 0 in their unit properties menu so they can walk right through towers as if they were flying, but they aren"t.

Hostile

You use triggers within the waypoints around the bản đồ as well as in the trigger that initially tells the units to start moving after they have spawned lớn make this group attack-khổng lồ instead of move-lớn.

Fast

Give sầu these guys increasingly fast speeds và at the highest levels give them the ability endurance aura too for added mayhem.

Invisible

Beware: making creeps that are invisible và NOT letting players know that there will be invisible creeps - or not easily allowing players lớn create towers that can detect invisible creeps - is a sure way khổng lồ make players really angry at you.Invisible creeps should be reserved for TDs only if you want lớn make them extremely challenging.

Healers

Create a region where, if the creeps reach it,they will have sầu their health changed khổng lồ 100%.

boss khủng Levels

As I mentioned earlier, TDs can have sầu "boss" levels.In my TDs, I tend khổng lồ have sầu them every 10 levels.To vị this, simply have sầu an if/then/else kiểm tra should creeps make it khổng lồ the final location in their route around the maps.If the unit type matches one of your bosses then make the player or players chiến bại the game - or thất bại a lot of lives - whichever you prefer.trùm cuối monsters should have sầu high defense và lots of life to lớn compensate for the fact that there"s only one of them.quái vật levels make the game more challenging & they give sầu the game a sense of urgency on some levels.Blizzard has trùm type monsters in their TFT TD.

Sellable Towers

Ever TD should have sầu sellable towers, and towers should be sellable in a user friendly way.Here"s a trick from Ryoko that works great for selling towers.1. Create a new ability called "Sell Tower" based on the Windwalk ability.2. Change all the values for your new Windwalk khổng lồ zero. The casting cost, durations, cooldown, every value inside the ability.3. Change the hotkey for the new ability to lớn something quality. I like to lớn use "X".4. Change all the tool tips for the new ability, & inhỏ. I like to lớn use the treasure chest or gold inhỏ.5. Add the ability to all your towers.6. Finally, create a trigger that looks like this. Any time a tower uses the "Sell Tower" ability, a trigger will sell the tower for half its value, create a nice special effect above sầu it, và destroy it. chú ý that it does not have lớn be half the value; it can be whatever you prefer.

Sell Towers Events Unit - A unit Begins casting an ability Conditions (Ability being cast) Equal to lớn Sell Tower Actions Player - Add ((Point-value of (Casting unit)) / 2) lớn (Owner of (Casting unit)) Current gold Special Effect - Create a special effect at (Position of (Casting unit)) using ... Unit - Remove sầu (Casting unit) from the gameI like lớn use AbilitiesSpellsHumanHolyBoltHolyBoltSpecialArt.mdl

Terrain Design

Yes, even a TD bản đồ can benefit from having interesting terrain.Make good use of setting up a custom menu of terrain variations in the advanced menu.It is quite a challenge lớn make a game with a strict grid-like layout look natural.But if you need an example, look no further than your AOS/DOTA/TOB type games.When you think about it, these games are all carefully measured out to make sure there is the same distance everywhere that the units are made lớn move.But the maps feel quite natural.There are often rivers and shallow water, shorelines, and plenty of trees.Use the "bumps" tool khổng lồ change your l& from flat and boring khổng lồ a bit varied.And liberal use of doodads can sometimes spruce the place up a bit.

The starting & ending location for your creeps should at the very least be nicely decorated in some way.

Upgradeable Towers

You may have seen in some TD games towers which you can tăng cấp lớn other towers.Here I will explain how to create these types of towers.First you will need lớn create two or more variations of the same tower - that is, you"ll need one separate unit for each tower cấp độ.Change the damage, attachồng tốc độ, whatever you desire for the upgraded version of the tower.Then take a look in the properties thực đơn at "upgrades to".Select the cấp độ 2 version of the tower.Rethành viên lớn price the tăng cấp appropriately - & fine tune the building time.

To take things even further, give players, or allow them to lớn build, a structure that they can nâng cấp if they have sầu enough gold.Then make the upgraded unit require that structure in order to be created.This is pretty much lượt thích Warcraft III: you need a Castle before you can build certain buildings.I prefer khổng lồ allow players to lớn build if they have enough gold - but you can restrict players lớn be able to lớn build after a certain level by giving players 1 lumber each at, say, cấp độ 20, and then requiring 1 lumber for the nâng cấp.If you vì chưng this, and in general, bởi vì not allow players lớn give sầu one another lumber ;)

Reducing lag in your TD

Although some might argue, you can destroy your initialization triggers (on bản đồ initialization).You know, the ones you"ll never need again 100% for sure once they exexinh tươi properly the first time.

You can also remove sầu corpses of creeps - unless you have towers that can raise the dead in which case you might want to rethink that, but for the most part, removing corpses is amazing for anti-lag purposes.Simply create a trigger that runs whenever a unit owned by the creep player dies, wait 2 seconds, & then remove sầu the unit from the game, corpse & all.

However, the largest anti-lag issue relates to lớn creating large numbers of units at one time, & ordering them to move.Try khổng lồ limit how many creeps appear per màn chơi to lớn 20 or so.

4. For Expert TD creators

Player controlled spawning

This is a relatively new concept in TDs.Players can make purchases from a building very similar to my custom spell - a devilseeds building sell code - & instead the action is to lớn create a bunch of units và order them to lớn move sầu or attack khổng lồ a location.In this way, players can time their attacks.The biggest downfall of using this is that you should definitely make the creeps that are spawned not controlled by the player that created them.Use a new player owned by a computer instead.Otherwise the player can stop the units và mass them up - a current large problem that I noticed in that new Gold TD bản đồ that everyone seems lớn be enjoying lately ;)

For that matter, don"t call your maps Platinum edition, Gold edition, or any other useless name like that because nobody toàn thân can tell which is the most recent version.

Also it"s your choice whether you want to "protect" your bản đồ.You have lớn realize that protecting your bản đồ will only keep complete newbies from messing with your bản đồ & adding their own hidden cheats và messing with game balance etc.I personally bởi protect my maps - but in all my loading screens I say if people want the unprotected version they can email me and I give sầu my tin nhắn address.In this way I kindomain authority protect my bản đồ from stupid people and help anyone that really wants to lớn see how I did something at the same time.

Overall difficulty and "breakpoints"

As I alluded lớn earlier, it is important that your game, overall, is not insanely difficult.At least, for the majority of time that players spkết thúc in it.The final level, và to a lesser degree the approximately 9 levels before that final màn chơi, should be *quite* challenging.I mean lets face it - nobody toàn thân likes a game if they can win all the time.

A "breakpoint" is my term for the point or level in the game when you start to lớn thảm bại unless you have sầu specific types of towers.For example, at level 60 in my game you start khổng lồ encounter invisible creeps.If you don"t have sầu the vision tăng cấp by this màn chơi, your towers won"t hit any of those creeps making your chances of winning drop off almost entirely.Another example is an air cấp độ.Don"t have any good AA towers & you can expect to lớn thua trận.Make sure that you put breakpoints at levels that are fair for your users.For example, don"t put invisible flyers on màn chơi 5.People that have never played before aren"t likely to enjoy your game if you vì chưng that.

Hybrid TD"s

If you lượt thích, you can incorporate a TD inlớn another type of game.For example, the game I am creating right now allows you lớn piông xã heroes and level them up lượt thích an RPG, gaining added revenue from their efforts.You use this revenue to build your towers and stop waves of enemies from breaching your base.To make things interesting there are two teams competing và not only can you use your anh hùng to lớn creep - you can use hyên khổng lồ attaông xã the other teams" heroes and their base - & defend your base as well.This is but one example.

Multiple objective sầu TD"s

In general, if your TD has multiple ways to win, it will be more interesting.For example, in my TD you can win by destroying the enemy base or by surviving the longest against the waves of creeps.You can also win by taking out the computer base where the creeps spawn - though this is quite difficult.

How to balance your TD

My gosh - I guess I could write an entire guide just on this topic but here are the BASICS:

+ Make sure your "breakpoints" are phối up fairly.+ Test the game! Release an "alpha" version & let players chạy thử it.

Then adjust the damage etc of your towers.The goal is lớn make it so that players are not forced to build towers of a specific type in order khổng lồ win.In other words, make sure that your players are not relying on one & only one tower.Otherwise having 50 different types of towers is redundant if players only want lớn use the one.

Managing Difficulty

I don"t really like games that have difficulty levels that one person has khổng lồ select from at the beginning.I also don"t like games where there is an unnecessary vote at the beginning of the game on the game difficulty.So instead, I wrote something that would *automatically* ramp up the difficulty for a player based on how good they were doing in-game.

The concept is simple really.We want khổng lồ measure how *good* a player is doing.If they are doing really good we can give monsters more HP., armor, make them faster, increase the number of monsters that spawn, etc - the sky is the limit.And how we vì this is up to lớn you.Since my levels happen periodically every 60 seconds I can vày a quick check at the 30 second mark to lớn see if there are still creeps alive sầu.Then change a variable called "numberperspawn".

This trigger is off by mặc định but you turn it on 30 sec after the bản đồ initialization so it happens at 1min30sec, 2min30sec, etc.

event: periodic event: every 60 secondsplayer: select all units owned by player 12 (creeps) & for each picked unit vì mix variable: creepsalive = (creepsalive +1 ).if creepsalive sầu is equal to 0, phối variable numberperspawn = (numberperspawn + 1)if creepsalive sầu is greater than 0, set variable numberperspawn = (originalnumberperspawn)I can also use team lives as a good indicator.If a team has already lost half their lives before cấp độ 11 rolls around, I can scale the difficulty level down a bit.Right before màn chơi 11 rolls around I can kiểm tra the variable for team lives and respond to that by changing a variable lượt thích numberperspawn, etc.

Arguably, increasing the number of creeps per spawn is not igiảm giá khuyến mãi as it allows players to lớn mass more gold than you may have sầu originally intended.A much more *balanced* way to lớn increase difficulty is to lớn select all the creep units and change their movement tốc độ or health.

Be careful on trùm levels to modify the script a bit.boss khủng levels should use a different variable or just phối it lớn 1.You should never have negative amounts of creeps spawning.

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